- B.A., Anthropology, Unversity of Utah
- M.A., Anthropology, Washington State University
- Ph.D., Anthropology, Washington State Unverstiy
In addition to training as an archaeologist, I was trained as a palynologist—a researcher who reconstructs climate by using pollen. My earliest exposure to studies of climate and humankind interactions occurred in the mid 1960s while working on high elevation game drive systems and Holocene cirque glaciation in the Colorado Front, above Boulder, Colorado. Since then I have expanded my studies to include most of the Western United States and Egypt, with special emphasis on the "Little Ice Age," and even looking into the future by examining the potential impact of future climate change as it relates to nuclear waste disposal.