William A. Smith headshot
  • Associate Professor, Ethnic Studies
  • Associate Professor, Education, Culture & Society
  • Associate Professor, Ethnic Studies

Publications

  • Corbin, N.J., Garcia, J. R., Smith, W.A. (under review, 2016). Trapped between justified anger and being the strong Black woman: Black college women coping with racial battle fatigue at historically and predominantly White institutions. Manuscript submitted for publication. International Journal of Qualitiative Studies in Education. Submitted, 12/18/2016.
  • Smith, W. A., Hung, M., & Franklin, J.D. (2016). Influence of school racial composition on academic achievement in math. Unpublished document. In progress, 11/17/2016.
  • "You Make Me Wanna Holler and Throw Up Both My Hands!": Campus Culture, Black Misandric Microaggressions, and Racial Battle Fatigue. Published, 09/14/2016.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09518398.2016.1214296
  • Smith, W.A. (in progress). Racial Battle Fatigue and the continuing dilemma for the 21st Century American educational institutions. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press. In progress, 06/06/2016.
  • Smith, W.A., (June 2016). Understanding the corollaries of offensive racial mechanisms, gendered racism, and racial battle fatigue. Center for Critical Race Studies at UCLA Research Brief, 1-4. Published, 06/01/2016.
    https://issuu.com/almaiflores/docs/was_research_br...
  • Smith, W. A., Hung, M., & Franklin, J.D. (2014). Influence of Schools’ Racial Composition on Academic Achievement in Math. Urban Education. African Americans are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and math fields. Previous research suggests that African Americans do not perform well in mathematics, the gateway subject to these fields. This study sought to examine African American elementary school students’ mathematics achievement across varying racial/ethnic compositions in schools. We utilized data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten class of 1998-1999. Using multi-level structural equation modeling, we examined mathematics performance of a nationally representative sample of 17,565 students from kindergarten to fifth grade. Results indicate that all students’ mathematics scores increase in schools with higher levels of Black students. This study challenges prior research by showing that African Americans perform well in schools with increasingly larger number of Black students in the overall school’s racial mix. Policy makers and school leaders need to understand the benefits of a diverse student and teaching population as an improvement academic achievement for all students. Submitted, 03/20/2015.
  • Franklin, J.D, Smith, W.A., & Hung, M. Beyond Academics and the Consideration of Health: The Development of a Racial Battle Fatigue Scale. Manuscript in preparation for submission to Journal of Health Psychology. . In progress, 03/2015.
  • Smith, W.A., Franklin, J.D, & Hung, M. The Role of Perceptions of Racial Microaggressions and Discrimination in the Pursuit of Additional Education for Students of Color and White College Students. Manuscript in preparation for submission to Journal of Health Psychology. . In progress, 03/2015.
  • Smith, W. A. (2015). Foreword. In R. Mitchell, K.J. Fasching-Varner, K. Albert & C. Allen (Eds.), Racial battle fatigue in higher education: Exposing the myth of post-racial America. Lanham, Maryland: Rowan & Littlefield Publishers. Published, 01/15/2015.
  • Smith, W. A. (2014). Obstacles to Change: Race, Racism, and Reform. In E. M. Zamani-Gallaher (Ed.), The Obama administration and educational reform: Toward new 21st Century school for the global knowledge economy. United Kingdom: Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Published, 11/14/2014.
  • Franklin, Jeremy, D., Smith, W. A., Hung, M. (2014). Racial Battle Fatigue for Latina/o Students: A Quantitative Perspective. Journal of Hispanics in Higher Education, 13(4) 303–322. Published, 07/03/2014.
  • Smith, W. A., Hung, M., & Franklin, J.D. (2011). Between hope and racial battle fatigue: African American men and race-related stress. The 
Journal 
of 
Black 
Masculinity,
 2(1), 35-58. Published, 03/01/2012.
  • Smith, W. A., Hung, M., Franklin, J. D. (2011). Racial Battle Fatigue and the Miseducation of Black Men: Microaggressions, Societal Problems, & Environmental Stress. Journal of Negro Education. Published, 01/01/2011.
  • Smith, W. A. (2010). Toward an understanding of misandric microaggressions and racial battle fatigue among African Americans in historically White institutions. In E. M. Zamani-Gallaher & V. C. Polite (Eds.), The state of the African American male (pp. 265-277). East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press. Published, 03/14/2010.
  • Yosso, T. J., Smith, W. A., Ceja, M., & Solórzano, D. G. (2009). Critical Race Theory, Racial Microaggressions, and Campus Racial Climate for Latina/o Undergraduates. Harvard Educational Review, 79(4), 659-690. Published, 2009.
  • Smith, W. A. (2008-a). Higher Education: Racial Battle Fatigue. In R. T. Schaefer (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society (pp. 615-618). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Published, 2008.
  • Smith, W. A. (2008-b). Campus Wide Climate: Implications for African American Students. In L. Tillman (Ed.), A Handbook of African American Education. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Published, 2008.
  • Smith, W. A., Allen, W. R., & Danley, L. L. (December 2007). "Assume the Position . . . You Fit the Description": Campus Racial Climate and the Psychoeducational Experiences and Racial Battle fatigue among African American Male College Students. American Behavioral Scientist, 51(4), 551-578. Published, 12/2007.
  • Smith, W. A., Yosso, T. J., & Solórzano, D. G. (2007). Racial Primes and Black Misandry on Historically White Campuses: Toward Critical Race Accountability in Educational Administration. Educational Administration Quarterly, 43(5), 559-585. Published, 12/2007.
  • Smith, W. A. (2006). Racial Ideology and Affirmative Action Support in a Diverse College Student Population. Journal of Negro Education, 75(4), 589-605. Published, 12/2006.
  • Smith, P. & Smith, W. A. (2005). Experiencing Community Through the Eyes of Young Female Offenders. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 21(4), 314-335. Published, 11/2005.
  • Smith, W. A. (1998). Gender and Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Affirmative Action Attitudes of U.S. College Students. Journal of Negro Education, 67(1), 1-22. Published, 01/1998.

Research Statement

In 2003, Dr. Smith was awarded the Ford Foundation Postdoctoral Research Fellowship to further develop his theoretical concept of Racial Battle Fatigue. Racial Battle Fatigue is an interdisciplinary theoretical framework that provides a clearer method for understanding the race-related experiences of People of Color. In general, Racial Battle Fatigue explains how the social environment (e.g., institutions, policies, practices, traditions, groups and individuals) perpetuates race-related stressors that adversely affect the health and academic achievement of Students of Color and the health, professional productivity, and retention among Faculty of Color. Whether it is from the constant stereotyping that Students of Color face on campus or the epistemological racism that Faculty of Color endure as they seek tenure and promotion, People of Color are chronically having race-related stress-responses in historically white institutions and environments that consumes valuable time and energy. Dr. Smith's fellowship year (2003-2004) was also spent working on collaborative projects at the UCLA with Dr. Walter R. Allen and Dr. Daniel Solórzano. Professor Smith's additional research interests are inter-ethnic relations, racial attitudes, racial identity & socialization, academic colonialism, affirmative action attitudes, and the impact of student diversity on university and college campuses.

Research Keywords

  • Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities
  • Racial identity & socialization
  • Racial Issues
  • Racial Battle Fatigue
  • Racial Attitudes & Stereotypes
  • Inter-ethnic relations
  • Impact of student diversity on university and college campuses
  • Academic colonialism

Presentations

  • Smith, W.A. (2016, October 7). Coping with Racial Battle Fatigue in Higher Education: Challenges and Strategies for Black Males in the 21st Century, Paper presented at the 5th Annual International Colloquium on Black Males in Education, Southampton, Bermuda, in the Contemporary Racism and Black Males in Higher Education Challenges and Strategies for the 21st Century session. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 10/07/2016.
  • Smith, W.A., (College Retreat Facilitator). “Understanding and Preventing Racial Microaggressions.” College of Social Work Faculty Retreat, September 12, 2016. Presentation, Presented, 09/12/2016.
  • Smith, W. A., Bishop, J., Jones, C., Curry, T. J., & Allen, Walter R. (2016, April). Reducing Hypersurveillance of African American Males in the Community. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Washington, DC., in the Public Scholarship to Foster Positive Intercultural Relations symposium. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 04/11/2016.
    https://convention2.allacademic.com/one/aera/aera1...
  • Smith, W.A., (Guest Lecturer). “Racial battle fatigue and the MisEducation of Black Men: Racial microaggressions, societal problems and environmental stress.” In Professor Dolores Calderon’s Diversity Scholars class, Spring 2016 (March 31st) class. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 03/31/2016.
  • Smith, W. A., “Developing the Gift in African American Male Leaders,” speaker for the Salt Lake Community College, African American/African College Day Conference. Salt Lake City, UT, February 19, 2016. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 02/19/2016.
  • Smith, W. A., “The Racial Crisis in American Higher Education,’ 7th Annual Diversity Conference, "So You Think You're Color Blind?: Questioning Interpersonal, Institutional and Structural Systems of Racial Oppression." Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL, February 5, 2016. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 02/05/2016.
  • Smith, W. A., Bishop, J., Jones, C., Curry, T. J., & Allen, Walter R. (2016, April). Reducing Hypersurveillance of African American Males in the Community. Paper accepted for presentation at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Washington, DC., in the Public Scholarship to Foster Positive Intercultural Relations symposium. Conference Paper, Refereed, Accepted, 12/29/2015.
  • Smith, W. A., “Overriding Forms of Implicit Racial Biases in Our Lives,” speaker for the Salt Lake Community College, President’s Leadership Institute. Salt Lake City, UT, December 2, 2015. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 12/02/2015.
  • Smith, W. A., Allen, Walter R., Jones, C., & Bishop, J. (2015, November). "You make me wanna holler and throw up both my hands!”: Campus culture, black misandric microaggressions, and racial battle fatigue. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Studies Association, San Antonio. TX. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 11/11/2015.
  • Smith, W. A., “Understanding Racial Battle Fatigue in Communities of Color,” Race Workshop. Duke University, Durham, NC, November 10, 2015. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 11/10/2015.
  • Smith, W. A., “Understanding Racial Microaggressions and Mundane Extreme Environmental Stress for Students of Color,” 17th Annual Diversity Conference, "So You Think You're Color Blind?: Questioning Interpersonal, Institutional and Structural Systems of Racial Oppression." Weber State University, Ogden, Utah, October 9, 2015. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 10/09/2015.
  • Smith, W. A., “Recognizing and Reducing Racial Microaggressions on Campus and in Classrooms,” speaker for the Salt Lake Community College, Bruin Talks. Salt Lake City, UT, September 30, 2015. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 09/30/2015.
  • Smith, W. A., Allen, Walter R., Jones, C., & Bishop, J. (2015, August). "You make me wanna holler and throw up both my hands!”: Campus culture, black misandric microaggressions, and racial battle fatigue. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association of Black Sociologists, Chicago, IL. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 08/13/2015.
  • Smith, W.A., Franklin, J.D., & Hung, M. (2015, April). The Impact of Racial Microaggressions Across Educational Attainment for African Americans. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 04/18/2015.
    https://convention2.allacademic.com/one/aera/aera1...
  • Smith, W. A., “Y’all Gon’ Make Me Lose My Mind Up In Here!” Understanding Racial Microaggressions and Racial Battle Fatigue in Communities of Color,” invited speaker to the Educational Psychology Departent’s Learning Sciences class, March 6, 2015. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 03/06/2015.
  • Smith, W. A., “Y’all Gon’ Make Me Lose My Mind Up In Here!” Understanding the Cost of Racial Microaggressions and Racial Battle Fatigue for People of Color,” keynote speaker at the Metro New York and Southern Connecticut Higher Education Recruitment Consortium (MNYSC HERC), “Diversity in Higher Education” Conference. New York University, June 3, 2014. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 06/03/2014.
  • Smith, W. A. (2012). Fighting a Never-Ending Battle: Microaggressions in the Lives of Graduate Students. Presentation at the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Las Vegas, NV. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 11/2012.
  • Smith, W.A. (with Man Hung) (2008, November). Fifth Grade Failure Syndrome?: The Impact of Mathematic Achievement and African American Enrollment Patterns. Paper presented at the annual Utah Education Policy Center Forum, Salt Lake City, Utah. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 11/14/2008.
  • Smith, W.A. (with Man Hung) (2008, July). Racial Battle Fatigue: The Influence of MEES, Racial Microaggressions, Societal Problems & Educational Achievement Across the Lives of Black Men. Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the Association of Black Sociologists, San Francisco, CA. (Refereed). Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 07/31/2008.
  • Smith, William A. (Chair/Discussant) (2008, April). (participants: Lewis, Amanda, Forman, Tyrone). Post Civil Rights Racism: Rejecting the Status Quo, Loyola University, April 1, 2008. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 04/01/2008.

Geographical Regions of Interest

  • United States of America