Sarah Ivy portrait
  • Associate Professor, Special Education


  • Ivy, S., Hanline, M. F. & Robbins, A. (2024). Teaming to Design Tangible Symbol Communication Systems for Children with Multiple Disabilities. Young Exceptional Children. Accepted, 02/09/2024.
  • Bruce, S., Ivy, S. & Brum, C. (2023). Severe and multiple disabilities. In James M. Kauffman, Daniel P. Hallahan, & Paige C. Pullen (Eds.), The Handbook of Special Education. Routledge. Accepted, 03/2023.
  • Nelson, C. & Ivy, S. (2023). The relationship between stress and challenging behavior in children who are deafblind. In M. Janssen, T. Hartshorne, & W. Wittich (Eds.), Communication with people who are deafblind: Assessment and intervention. . Oxford University Press. Accepted, 02/2023.
  • Riesen, T., Polychronis, S. & Ivy, S. (2023). Providing scaffolded supports: Response and stimulus prompts. In R. Pennington, M. J. Ault, G. Courtade, J. M. Jameson, & A. Ruppar (Eds.), High Leverage Practices and Students with Extensive Support Needs . (pp. 185-196). Routledge. Published, 01/01/2023.
  • Ivy, S. & Ledford. J. (2022). A systematic review of behavioral interventions to reduce restricted or repetitive behavior of individuals with visual impairment. Journal of Behavioral Education. Vol. 31, 94–122. Published, 03/2022.
  • Singer, I., Ivy, S. E. & Meyers, S. (2021). Reducing hand-related stereotypy for a student with deafblindness. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness. Vol. 117, 286-298. Published, 07/17/2021.
  • Brum, C., Bruce, S. & Ivy, S. (2021). Strategies for teaching tactile tangible symbol systems: Case study on a learner with deafblindness. (pp. 48-57). Vol. 66. Visual Impairment and Deafblind Education Quarterly. Published, 07/2021.
  • Ivy, S., Robbins, A & Kerr, M. G. (2020). Adapted Picture Exchange Communication System Using Tangible Symbols for Young Learners with Significant Multiple Disabilities. Augmentative and Alternative Communication. Published, 10/01/2020.
  • Ivy, S. & Therrien, M. C. S., Whalon, K., Bilgin, M., Cox, S., & Hammons, N. (2020). RouTEAM: Home and school partnerships to support communication for children with complex communication needs. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities. Published, 06/17/2020.
  • Johnston, S. S., , Blue, C., Gevarter, C., Ivy, S. & Stengenga, S. (2020). Opportunity barriers and promising practices for supporting individuals with complex communication needs. Current Developmental Disorders Reports. Vol. 7, 100-108. Published, 05/2020.
  • Ivy, S., Hatton, D. D. & Wehby, J. H. (2018). Using graduated guidance to teach spoon-use to children with severe multiple disabilities including visual impairment. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities. Vol. 43, 252-268. Published, 11/2018.


  • Ivy, S., Robbins, A., Furbush, P., & Johnson, S. (2021, September). Strategies to support AAC use for children who are deafblind. Presentation for Division for Early Childhood's 38th Annual International Conference on Young Children with Disabilities and Their Families, Virtual. Presentation, Presented, 09/2021.
  • Ivy, S., Bruce, S., & Brum, C. (2021, March). Tactile tangible symbol systems: Their design, use, and success for three learners with visual impairment. Presentation for Council at Exceptional Children Annual Convention, Council for Exceptional Children, Baltimore, MD. Presentation, Presented, 03/11/2021.
  • Robbins, A. & Ivy, S. (2020, February). Adapted Picture Exchange Communication System. Poster presentation at Conference on Research Innovations in Early Intervention, San Diego, CA. Presentation, Presented, 02/14/2020.
  • Ivy, S. (2019, May). Systematic Review and Experimental Analysis of Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Restricted or Repetitive Behavior of Individuals with Visual Impairment and Deafblindness. Presentation at 45th Annual Convention, Association of Behavior Analysis International, Chicago, IL. Presentation, Presented, 05/30/2019.

Research Groups

  • Meridith Karpinnin, Graduate Student. SPED. 11/01/2022 - present.
  • Paige Furbush, Graduate Student. SPED. 05/06/2022 - present.