MARC CALAF portrait
  • Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering
  • Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering
801-587-3253

Publications

  • F. Margairaz, E. Pardyjak, and M. Calaf. Surface Thermal Heterogeneities and the Atmospheric Boundary Layer: The Relevance of Dispersive Fluxes. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 175, 369-395, 2020. Published, 01/01/2020.
  • 1. F. Margairaz, E. Pardyjak, and M. Calaf. Surface Thermal Heterogeneities and the Atmospheric Boundary Layer: The Heterogeneity Parameter. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 2020. Published, 01/01/2020.
  • 1. A Glick, SE Smith, N Ali, J Bossuyt, G Recktenwald, M Calaf, RB Cal. Influence of flow direction and turbulence intensity on heat transfer of utility-scale photovoltaic solar farms. Solar Energy 207, 173-182, 2020. Published, 01/01/2020.
  • B Stanislawski, F Margairaz, RB Cal, M Calaf. Potential of module arrangements to enhance convective cooling in solar photovoltaic arrays, Renewable Energy 157, 851-858, 2020. Published, 01/01/2020.
  • A Glick, N Ali, J Bossuyt, G Recktenwald, M Calaf, RB Cal. Infinite photovoltaic solar arrays: Considering flux of momentum and heat transfer. Renewable Energy 156, 791-803, 2020. Published, 01/01/2020.
  • A Glick, N Ali, J Bossuyt, M Calaf, RB Cal. Utility-scale solar PV performance enhancements through system-level modifications. Scientific Reports 10 (1), 1-9, 2020. Published, 01/01/2020.
  • G. Cortina, R. B. Cal, and M. Calaf. Distribution of mean kinetic energy around an isolated wind turbine and a characteristic wind turbine of a very large wind farm. Physical Review Fluids, 1: 074402, 1-18, 2016. Published, 03/02/2016.
  • Mutzner R., Weijs S., Tarolli P., Calaf M., Oldroyd H. & Parlange M. (2015). Controls on the diurnal streamflow cycles in two subbasins of an alpine headwater catchment. (pp. 3403-3418). Vol. 51, Water Resources Research. Published, 05/01/2015.
  • V. Sharma, M. Calaf, M. Lehning and M.B. Parlange (2015). Time-adaptive wind turbine model for an LES framework. Wind Energy (DOI: 10.1002/we.1877)1. Published, 03/31/2015.
  • Higgins C., Vache K., Calaf M., Hassanpour E. & Parlange M. (2015). Wind turbines and water in irrigated areas. Agricultural Water Management.. Published, 01/01/2015.
  • M. Calaf, C.W. Higgins and M.B. Parlange, Large Wind Farms and the Scalar Flux over an Heterogeneously Rough Land Surface. Boundary Layer Meteorology, 10.1007/s10546-014-9959-6, 1-25, 2014. Published, 03/2014.
  • M. Calaf, M. Hultmark, H.J. Oldroyd V. Simeonov and M.B. Parlange (2013). Coherent Structures and the k-1 spectral behaviour. Physics of Fluids, 25 :125107, 1-14. Published, 12/2013.
  • M. Hultmark, M. Calaf and M.B. Parlange (2013). A new wall shear stress model for atmopsheric boundary layer simulations. Journal of Atmsopheric Sciences, 70 :11, 3460-3470. Published, 10/2013.
  • H. Huwald, J. S. Selker, S. W. Tyler, M. Calaf, N. C. van de Giesen and M. B. Parlange, Carbon monoxide as a tracer of gas transport in snow and other natural porous media. Geophysical Research Letters, 39:L02504, 1-6, 2012. Published, 03/01/2012.
  • M. Calaf, M. B.Parlange and C. Meneveau, Large Eddy Simulation study of scalar transport in fully developed wind-turbine array boundary layers. Physics of Fluids, 23 :126603, 1-16, 2011. Published, 03/01/2011.
  • M. Calaf, C. Meneveau and J. Meyers. Large Eddy Simulation study of a fully developed wind-turbine array boundary layers. Physics of Fluids, 22:015110, 1-16, 2010. Published, 03/01/2010.

Research Statement

The continuous growth in energy demand together with the awareness of green house gases and their implication on climate change pushed our society to design and think of new clean sources of environmentally sustainable energy. Atmospheric sciences is the branch of physical sciences that studies the movement and properties of the air mass between the earth surface and the open space and it is strategically placed to play a fundamental role in the search for sustainable energy. Deep understanding of the movement of the atmosphere and its exchange with the earth’s surface is fundamental to future strategies. What was once described as the butterfly effect by Edward Lorentz, reflecting the inherent degree of complexity of the atmospheric system, also illustrates well the high degree of interconnectivity and complexity of the environmental system, bringing into relevance the need for fundamental understanding when one wishes to tackle such a multi-layer problem.

My research program focuses on the development, understanding and modeling of wind energy with its feedbacks to the local atmosphere and surrounding environment. I have a special interest in fundamental processes and a clear goal to better assess the future development of sustainable sources of energy. At present my research program focuses on the following three main areas:       

·      Near-surface processes within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL): Most of the energy flux parameterizations used within the numerical codes to model the land-atmosphere interactions rely on spatial homogeneity and statistical stationarity. Up until present these assumptions have worked decently well given the coarse numerical resolution available. However, with the increase in computer power, it is now possible to resolve the heterogeneities of the real land surface. An improved understanding of the atmospheric flow physics is therefore needed to develop new parameterizations that can cope with this spatial heterogeneity.

·      Wind turbine wakes and incoming flow conditions: Future wind turbines will learn about the incoming wind conditions by means of wind LIDAR technology installed at the nacelle of the turbines. By scanning the flow upstream of the turbine it is possible to measure the unperturbed wind direction and to learn about the incoming turbulence ahead of time, so the turbine settings can be timely readjusted. Our research group uses Large Eddy Simulations to explore the incoming wind conditions and learn how far upstream one should measure according to the thermal atmospheric stratification and the presence of additional upstream wind turbines.  

·      Numerical simulations for Solar Energy: Given the anticipated expansion of photovoltaic solar energy in years to come, it is fundamental to maximize the capacity of solar farms to harvest the radiative power from the sun. The increasing interest in photovoltaic (PV) solar energy in the past few years results from the fact that solar cell efficiency has reached over 40% in the laboratory and there has been a large reduction in manufacturing costs. However, two major barriers remain: progressive heating of the solar cell, and blockage of the radiation by particle deposition. The continuous change in temperature of the cell is an intrinsic limitation of solar PV. Cell efficiency decreases as temperature increases, with power performance losses exceeding 10%. Therefore, temperature control of the PV cell is a fundamental problem that must be solved without further delay. Another very important limitation to solar PV is the reduced power caused by particle deposition on the surface of the solar panel. Reports from the National Renewable Energy laboratory indicate energy losses as high as 25% in some areas with high aerosol concentration. Within this research area we intend to investigate the possibility to regulate the temperature of solar panels by passive control of the surrounding airflow, and the use of winglet-type structures to artificially induce ventilation that reduces particle deposition on the active surface of the PV panel.

In a short-term future, I plan to expand my research to the study and modeling of large-scale atmospheric dynamics for wind energy resources forecasting. To date wind resources forecasting is based on single column models and empirical relationships. I intend to develop and improve large atmospheric dynamics modeling (so called mesoscale modeling) together with Large Eddy Simulations coupling for further development of accurate wind resources forecasting, and assessment. Addressing these problems will enable a focused research effort to answer fundamental questions in the context of clean energy, climate change and sustainability. I believe that my research group can make a major contribution to the community by bringing together the knowledge and experience from the mix of an engineering and atmospheric sciences approach, together with the understanding of fundamental fluid mechanics.

This past year I have also been working to launch a new radically-different research line, based on modeling of cardiovascular flows. For this reason, I have submitted a couple Seed grant proposals, as well as an NIH proposal. Unfortunately, the initial Seed and NIH proposals were rejected. One for trying to overachieve (Seed), and the second one for lack of proven experience (NIH). It is for this reason that I currently look forward to hear back from the Seed grant resubmission. If this funding was awarded, it would provide me the opportunity to develop preliminary results that in a secondary stage would allow applying for NIH funding. 

 

My current research splits in three different lines: study and parameterization of near-surface process in the atmospheric boundary layer, the study of wind energy systems, and the development of new knowledge related to solar PV energy systems. Additionally, I am working to launch two new research lines, one related to control of UAVs using knowledge of the air flow. This is in collaboration with Prof. Leang (UofU). A second one, radically-different from my past research focus, related to the study and modeling of cardio-vascular flows.

Near surface process in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer: This is research is currently being developed by PhD students Travis Morrison and Fabien Margairaz, in collaboration with Prof. Eric Pardyjak (UofU). Currently, this research is still supported with my start-up funds, but in order to expand the research, we have a pending proposal with Prof. Pardyjak. This is the third re-submission of this proposal. One of the main issues related to this project is that we are proposing a leap forward on the way traditional boundary layer processes are parameterized in numerical models, developing a radically new approach to include the effects of surface heterogeneity. As a result, we have encountered quite some skepticism from the NSF reviewers, making this project very hard to get funded. Nonetheless, we are convinced that pursuing this effort is fundamental, therefore we will persist on our effort. One manuscript was recently submitted and is currently under review.

Wind energy systems: This research is currently being developed by PhD student Gerard Cortina (UofU), Varun Sharma (EPFL), Naseem Ali (PSU), Elnaz Hassanpour (OSU), and Ms. student Yohhan Karkera. We originally initiated this research with the goal of improving our understanding of how wind energy systems affect local meteorology. Since then this research has branched in several different directions spanning from the most traditional civil engineering applications (efforts, loads and fatigues), to fundamental fluid mechanics (anisotropy of the flow), to system design (optimization of the wind farm layout), and atmospheric boundary layer induced changes (boundary layer height, heat fluxes modification). Currently this research is supported with my start-up funds. To amend this limitation, I have a pending proposal (NSF-PDM, Career) that proposes to further expand on some of these topics. Additionally, we recently started a collaboration with Prof. Bou-Zeid at Princeton University, were we have coupled our numerical codes and we will be the first to look at the combined vertical and horizontal axis wind turbines systems. Preliminary results show great potential, and I expect to be able to write a new proposal related to this topic that would perfectly fit in the Fluid Dynamics program. This research program has created nine-new manuscripts this year (four already accepted and published, and five more under review).

Solar PV energy systems: This is a brand new research topic for which we only have preliminary results, and we have currently one proposal pending at NSF. To further support this new and exciting research project we are also working to submit a new proposal to DOE for the Sunshot program. The good news is that we are working with one of the main research scientists at DOE that helped design the DOE call, so we are really excited to the possibility of actually getting funded by DOE. This senior DOE scientist (Dr. Timothy Silverman) has also helped us better design the NSF proposal, and he is also very excited for the proposed research, given that at present there is nobody else trying to do what we are proposing. In order to further develop preliminary results and begin working on a first paper I am planning to hire a new Ms. student. This is a very good student with a double undergraduate degree in Physics and Atmospheric Sciences.

New research lines:

Control of UAVs: After a few discussions with Prof. Leang we realized that it would be interesting to combine both of our domains of expertise (robotics and controls with fluid mechanics) to try to develop new control mechanisms for UAVs based on detection of the fluid flow. As a result, we submitted a new proposal to the NSF-CMMI this past February (2016). Despite the fact that this initial proposal got rejected, we got great new ideas from the reviews, and we have as well created new preliminary data that we believe will make the proposal resubmission much stronger. In parallel to the NSF proposal submission, we are currently exploring venues of funding within ARL, to whom we recently submitted a white paper.

 

Modelling of cardiovascular flows: This is a radically new research line for me, that was brought to my attention by Prof. Abbott (UofU). Thanks to Prof. Abbott I got to meet a pediatric cardiovascular doctor at the UofU hospital (Dr. Mart) that brought to my attention a very intriguing and interesting research question regarding cardiovascular flows. As a result, together with Dr. Mart and Research Prof. Todd Harman (UofU) two proposal were submitted to NIH and to the UofU seed grant. Unfortunately, both were initially rejected. The NIH one was rejected given our lack of previous experience in modeling cardiovascular flows. The Seed grant was rejected for trying to be over ambitious. As a results, a revised UofU Seed grant was resubmitted this past August (2016). The goal is to create preliminary results such to in a second stage be able to reapply to NIH.

 

 

Research Keywords

  • Wind Energy
  • Turbulence
  • Fluid Mechanics
  • Atmospheric Flows

Presentations

  • T. Morrison, E. Pardyjak, M. Calaf. A three-dimensional control volume analysis of the surface energy balance. AGU annual meeting 2020. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 12/05/2020.
  • H. Kadum, C.W. Higgins, G. Salmaso, R. Scott, M.Calaf, R.B. Cal. Momentum transport in heterogeneous forest canopies. AGU annual meeting 2020. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 12/05/2020.
  • R. Scott, C. W Higgins, G. Salmaso, H. Kadum, M. Calaf, R.B. Cal. Spatial Heterogeneity as a bridge between canopy turbulence and numerical weather predictions. AGU annual meeting 2020. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 12/05/2020.
  • G. Salmaso, C. W. Higgins, R. B. Cal, M. Calaf. Unfolding the link between forest canopy structure and flow morphology. AGU annual meeting 2020. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 12/05/2020.
  • M. Puccioni, G.V. Iungo, T. Morrison, A. Perelet, S. Hoch, M. Calaf, S. Drake, C. W. Higgins, M. Hultmark, E. Pardyjak. Investigation of Wall-Detached Turbulence in the Atmospheric Surface Layer through LiDAR and Sonic-Anemometer Measurements. APS-DFD 2020. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 11/22/2020.
  • J. McNeal, A. Glick, S. Smith, N. Ali, J. Bossuyt, B. Stanislawski, M. Calaf, R. B. Cal. Effects of height configuration on heat shedding and flow characteristics in a model solar PV farm. APS-DFD 2020. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 11/22/2020.
  • S. Smith, A. Glick, B. Stanislawski, N. Ali, J. Bossuyt, M. Calaf, R. B. Cal. Parameterization of Turbulence, Heat Transfer and Spatial Characterization for Utility-Scale Solar Farms. APS-DFD 2020. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 11/22/2020.
  • B. Stanislawski, T. Harman, R. B. Cal, M. Calaf. The influence of streamwise row spacing on convective heat transfer in solar photovoltaic arrays. APS-DFD 2020. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 11/22/2020.
  • H. Kadum, R. Scott, S. Smith, G. Salmaso, C. Higgins, R.B. Cal, M. Calaf. Momentum Transport in Heterogeneous Forest Canopies. APS-DFD 2020. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 11/22/2020.
  • G. Salmaso, R. B. cal, C. Higgins, M.Calaf. Unfolding the Link between Forest Canopy Structure and Flow Morphology. APS-DFD 2020. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 11/22/2020.
  • R. Scott, H. Kadum, G. Salmaso, M. Calaf, R.B. Cal. A Spatial Heterogeneity Parameter for Canopy Flows. APS-DFD 2020. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 11/22/2020.
  • Marc Calaf, Travis Morrison, Fabien Margairaz, Alexei Perelet, Chad W. Higgins, Stephen A. Drake, and Eric R. Pardyjak. Surface thermal heterogeneities, dispersive fluxes and the conundrum of unaccounted statistical spatial inhomogeneities. EGU annual meeting 2020. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 04/05/2020.
  • Travis Morrison, Marc Calaf, Eric Pardyjak, Marcus Hultmark, Chad Higgins, Giacomo Iungo, Stephan Drake, Sebastian Hoch, Dragan Zajic, Alexei Perelet, Alex Bingham, Claudia Brunner, Thomas DeBell, Nipun Gunawardena, Yi-Chun Huang, Gabe Mogollon, Behzad Najafi, Yajat Pandya, Matteo Puccioni, and Dhiraj Kumar Singh Sr. An atmospheric surface layer study: The Idealized horizontal Planar Array experiment for Quantifying Surface Heterogeneity (IPAQS). EGU annual meeting 2020. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 04/01/2020.
  • Surface thermal heterogeneities, dispersive fluxes and the conundrum of unaccounted statistical spatial inhomogeneities. Freie Universität Berlin. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 02/01/2020.
  • T. Morrison, E. Pardyjak, M. Calaf; A three-dimensional control volume analysis of the surface energy balance. AGU Annual meeting 2019. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 12/05/2019.
  • S.A. Drake, A. Perelet, C. W. Higgins, C. Brunner, E. Pardyjak, F. Margairaz, G. Iungo, H.J. Oldroyd, S. Wharton, M. Puccioni, Y.K. Huang, M. Hultmark, J. Kelly, M. Calaf. A comparative assessment of TKE terms for two near-canonical sites. AGU annual meeting 2019. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 12/05/2019.
  • T. Morrison, A. Perelet, C. W. Higgins, E. Pardyjak, S. A. Drake, M. Calaf. The role of horizontal advection and vertical flux divergence on the temperature tendency equation. AGU annual meeting 2019. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 12/05/2019.
  • A. Perelet, M. Calaf, E. Pardyjak. Scintillometry and the surface energy balance: spatial and temporal scales for energy closure. AGU annual meeting 2019. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 12/05/2019.
  • F. Margairaz, E. Pardyjak, M. Calaf. Surface thermal heterogeneities and the atmospheric boundary layer: a new non-dimensional parameter. AGU annual meeting 2019. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 12/05/2019.
  • H. Kadum, C. W. Higgins, G. Salmaso, R. Scott, M. Calaf, R.B. Cal. Momentum transport in heterogeneous forest canopies. AGU annual meeting 2019. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 12/05/2019.
  • R. Scott, C.W. Higgins, G. Salmaso, H. Kadum, M. Calaf, and R. B. Cal. Spatial heterogeneity as a bridge between canopy structure and numerical weather predictions. AGU annual meeting 2019. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 12/05/2019.
  • E. Pardyjak, M. Calaf, M. Hultmark, C.W. Higgins, G. V. Iungo, S. A. Drake, S. W. Hoch, D. Zajic, A. Perlet, T. Morrison, A. Bingham, C. Brunner, T.C. DeBell, N. Gunawardenam Y.K. Huang, S. Letizia, G. Mogollon, B, Najafi, Y. Pandya, M. Puccioni, C. Schwartz, D.K. Singh, L. Zhan. The idealized planar-array study for quantifying surface heterogeneity (IPAQS) in the atmospheric surface layer. AGU annual meeting 2019. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 12/05/2019.
  • G. Salmaso, C. Higgins, R.B. Cal, and M. Calaf. Unfolding the link between forest canopy structure and flow morphology. AGU annual meeting 2019. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 12/05/2019.
  • M. Calaf, B. Stanislawski, T. Harman, R.B. Cal. Enhancement of convective cooling in solar photovoltaics. APS-DFD 2019. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 11/22/2019.
  • R. Scott, H. Falih, S. Smith, N. Ali, J. Bossuyt, M. Calaf, R.B. Cal. Considering spatial inhomogeneities in forest canopies. APS-DFD 2019. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 11/22/2019.
  • H. Kadum, R. Scott, S. Smith, N. Ali, J. Bossuyt, R. B. Cal, M. Calaf. Implications of spatial heterogeneity on fluxes and dispersive stresses in a forest canopy. APS-DFD 2019. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 11/22/2019.
  • G.V. Iungo, B. Najafi, M. Puccioni, S. Hoch, M. Calaf, E. Pardyjak. LiDAR measurements of the Turbulent/non-turbulent Interface in the Atmospheric Surface Layer. APS-DFD 2019. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 11/22/2019.
  • R. B. Cal, H. Kadum, M. Quigley, G. Cortina, M. Calaf. Wake recovery in collocated wind plants. APS-DFD 2019. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 11/22/2019.
  • J. McNeal, A. Glick, N. Ali, J. Bossuyt, G. Recktenwald, M. Calaf, R. B. Cal. Flow field and heat transfer characteristics in a model solar PV farm. APS-DFD 2019. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 11/22/2019.
  • A. Glick, J. Bossuyt, N. Ali, M. Calaf, R.B. Cal. Temperature reduction through system level flow enhancement via model solar PV farm wind tunnel experiments. APS-DFD 2019. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 11/22/2019.
  • Surface thermal heterogeneities, dispersive fluxes and the conundrum of unaccounted statistical spatial inhomogeneities. University of Innsbruck. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 11/01/2019.
  • M Calaf, T. Morrison, F. Margairaz, A. Perelet, C. W. Higgins, S. A. Drake, and E. Pardyjak. Surface thermal heterogeneities, dispersive fluxes and the conundrum of unaccounted statistical spatial inhomogeneities. EMS Annual Meeting Abstracts; Vol. 16, EMS2019-216, 2019. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 09/15/2019.
  • Surface thermal heterogeneities, dispersive fluxes and the conundrum of unaccounted statistical spatial inhomogeneities. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology -- Campus Alpine. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 09/01/2019.
  • I. Stiperski, M. Calaf, and M. Rotach. Employing Anisotropy to Study Turbulence in Complex Terrain. 23rd Symposium on Boundary Layers and Turbulence, 2018 . Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 06/10/2018.
  • F. Margairaz, E. Pardyjak and M. Calaf. Stepping Towards New Parameterizations for Non-Canonical Atmospheric Surface-Layer Conditions, a Dispersive-Flux Approach. 23rd Symposium on Boundary Layers and Turbulence, 2018. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 06/10/2018.
  • M. Calaf, F. Margairaz, E. Pardyjak. Dispersive Fluxes and Flow Structure of Thermally Forced Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flows. 23rd Symposium on Boundary Layers and Turbulence, 2018. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 06/10/2018.
  • M. Calaf, F. Margairaz, E. Pardyjak. Stepping towards new parameterizations for non-canonical atmospheric surface-layer conditions. AGU General Assembly 2014. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 12/10/2017.
  • T. Morrison, M. Calaf, H.J. Fernando, T. A. Price, and E. Pardyjak. Development of a New Methodology for Computing Surface Sensible Heat Fluxes using Thermal Imagery. General Assembly 2017. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 12/10/2017.
  • Stiperski and M. Calaf. What can anisotropy tell us about turbulence similarity in terrain of increasing complexity? AGU General Assembly 2017. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 12/10/2017.
  • M. Calaf, V. Maurer, and N. Kalthoff. Characteristic frequencies of boundary-layer turbulence over flat, heterogeneous terrain under different stratification conditions. 22nd Symposium on Boundary Layers and Turbulence, 2016. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 06/2016.
  • G. Cortina, V. Sharma and M. Calaf. Mean Kinetic Energy Fluxes within Wind Farms through a Diurnal Cycle. 22nd Symposium on Boundary Layers and Turbulence, 2016. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 06/2016.
  • F. Margairaz and M. Calaf. Role of the dispersive fluxes in the Surface Energy Balance over heterogeneous surfaces, a LES study.22nd Symposium on Boundary Layers and Turbulence, 2016. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 06/2016.
  • T. Morrison, M. Calaf and E. Pardyjak. Impacts of Land Surface Heterogeneity on Atmospheric Flows during the MATERHORN Playa Field Campaign. 22nd Symposium on Boundary Layers and Turbulence, 2016. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 06/2016.
  • V. Sharma, N. Ali, R.B. Cal, M.B. Parlange, M. Calaf. Role of coherent structures in mean kinetic energy entrainment by finite-sized wind farms and lessons from canopy flows. 22nd Symposium on Boundary Layers and Turbulence, 2016. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 06/2016.
  • G. Cortina, V. Sharma and M. Calaf. Mean Kinetic Energy Fluxes within Wind Farms through a Diurnal Cycle. Windfarms 2016 . Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 05/2016.
  • M. Calaf, G. Cortina and V. Sharma. Flow adjustment in a finite-size wind farm in a neutral ABL – an LES study. Windfarms 2016. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 05/2016.
  • APS-Fluids,G12.00001 : Wind Turbine Box - energy fluxes around a characteristic wind turbine. Marc Calaf, G. Cortina, Varun Sharma. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 11/24/2015.
  • APS-Fluids,E21.00004 : Adjustment of mean velocity and turbulence due to a finite-size wind farm in a neutral ABL - A LES study. Varun Sharma, Marc Parlange, Marc Calaf. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 11/23/2015.
  • APS-Fluids,E20.00006: Study of dealiasing schemes in pseudo-spectral methods for Large-Eddy Simulations of incompressible flows. Fabien Margairaz, Marco Giometto, Marc Parlange, Marc Calaf. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 11/22/2015.
  • M. Calaf, G. Cortina, Y. Karkera and V. Sharma. A large eddy simulation study of a wind farm throughout a realistic (CASES-99) diurnal cycle. Seminar at the Mechanical Engineering Department, Portland State University, 2015. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 11/2015.
  • M. Calaf, G. Cortina, Y. Dinkar, and V. Sharma. Wind Turbine Box, the flow around a characteristic wind turbine. WINDFARMS 2015, Leuven. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 07/10/2015.
  • G. Cortina, V. Sharma, M. Calaf. Turbulence analysis upstream of a wind turbine: a LES approach to improve wind LIDAR technology. WINDFARMS 2015, Leuven. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 07/09/2015.
  • V. Sharma, M. Calaf, M.B. Parlange, and M. Lehning. An LES study of a large wind farm during a realistic (CASES99) diurnal cycle. WINDFARMS 2015, Leuven. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 07/08/2015.
  • AGU 2014, A43A-3228 The characteristic averaging time for the surface-layer fluxes. Marc Calaf, Valerio Iungo, Holy Oldroyd, Marco Giometto, Marc B. Parlange. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 12/18/2014.

Research Groups

  • Sarah Smith, Graduate Student. Mechanical Engineering, Portland State University. 08/01/2020 - present.
  • Alexia Savas, Undergraduate Student. Mechanical Engineering. 01/01/2020 - present. Awards/Scholarships/Stipends: UROP student.
  • Stu McNeal, Graduate Student. Mechanical Engineering, Portland State University. 01/01/2020 - present.
  • Ryan Scott, Graduate Student. Mechanical Engineering, Portland State University. 01/01/2019 - present.

Languages

  • Catalan, fluent.
  • English, fluent.
  • French, fluent.
  • German, functional.
  • Spanish, fluent.

Geographical Regions of Interest

  • Canada
  • Europe