MICHAEL L FREE portrait
  • Adjunct Professor, Materials Science and Engineering
  • Professor, Metallurgical Engineering

Research Statement

My research interests are focused primarily on metals and their interactions with solution environments. This area of research is often generally referred to as chemical metallurgy or more specifically as a combination of electrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy. Consequently, most of my research has involved electrodeposition and corrosion as well as metal and metal compound reaction chemistry.

Research Keywords

  • Photovoltaics
  • Hydrometallurgy
  • Electrochemistry
  • Corrosion

Research Groups

  • Joshua Greene, Graduate Student. 01/01/2017 - present.
  • Jaron Wallace, Undergraduate Student. 09/01/2016 - present.
  • Zonliang Zhang, Graduate Student. 08/16/2016 - present.
  • Marina McNeill, Undergraduate Student. 01/01/2016 - present.
  • Erik Sundberg, Graduate Student. 08/17/2015 - present.
  • Sayan Sarkar, Graduate Student. 08/2015 - present.
  • Brandon Anglesey, Graduate Student. 08/2015 - present.
  • Wyatt McNeill, Undergraduate Student. 04/2015 - present.
  • Syamantak Roy, Graduate Student. 08/2014 - present.
  • Brandon Anglesey, Undergraduate Student. 08/2014 - 08/2015.
  • Jae-Hun Cho, Graduate Student. 08/2014 - present.
  • Urian Marshall, Undergraduate Student. 03/01/2014 - 07/01/2016.
  • Joshua Werner, Graduate Student. 01/05/2014 - present.
  • Colton Allred, Undergraduate Student. 11/15/2013 - 08/2015.
  • Dr. Prashant Sarswat, Research Professor. 09/16/2013 - present.
  • Dr. Amarchand Sathyapalan, Research Professor. 09/16/2013 - present.
  • Alexander Derrick, Graduate Student. 08/15/2013 - 06/2015.
  • Weizhi Zeng, Graduate Student. 01/01/2013 - present.
  • Gaosong Yi, Graduate Student. 08/15/2012 - present.
  • Nathan Hamilton, Undergraduate Student. 06/30/2012 - 04/2015.
  • Yakun Zhu, Graduate Student. 08/15/2010 - 12/2015.

Presentations

  • Modeling Electrowinning and Electrorefining”, short course, Electrometallurgy 2016, Quebec City, Canada. Other, Presented, 09/10/2106.
  • Slime Mobility, Availability, and Transport Effects on cathode Purity in Copper Electrorefining,” Copper 2016, Kobe, Japan. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 11/15/2016.
  • Multi-Physics Modelling and Validation of Copper Heap Leaching Performance,” Copper 2016, Kobe, Japan. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 11/15/2016.
  • Critical Characterization and Modeling of Electrowinning Systems for Optimization,” Copper 2016, Kobe, Japan. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 11/15/2016.
  • Electrometallurgy Innovations,” keynote presentation, Electrometallurgy 2016, Quebec City, Canada. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 09/13/2016.
  • Modeling of Agglomerate Size Distribution for Heap Leaching,” IMPC 2016, Quebec City, Canada. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 09/12/2016.
  • Modeling Electrometallurgy Topography,” Electrometallurgy 2016, Quebec City, Canada. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 09/12/2016.
  • Cathode Corrosion, Anode Lifetime, and Short-Circuiting, Teck, Trail, British Columbia, Canada. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 05/18/2016.
  • Enhanced Removal of Nanoparticles Using Surfactants, MRS Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 03/30/2016.
  • Electrochemical Kinetics. Other, Presented, 03/09/2016.
  • Characterization of Intragranular Mg-rich Precipitates Formed in Al 5xxx Alloys Aged at 343 K. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 02/18/2016.
  • “Mixed-Surfactant Aggregation and Adsorption Effects on Steel Corrosion Inhibition in Aqueous Media with Salt” DoD Corrosion Conference, Pittsburgh, November 17, 2015. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 11/17/2015.
  • “Long-Term Al 5xxx Alloy Sensitization Modeling and Experimental Validation,” DoD Corrosion Conference, Pittsburgh, November 17, 2015. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 11/17/2015.
  • Modelling Heap Leaching PLS from Valuable Mineral Associations and Leaching Parameters, Heap Leach Solutions 2015, Reno, Nevada, September 15, 2015. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 09/15/2015.
  • Novel Methods for Titanium Powder Synthesis, TMS Annual Meeting, Orlando, Florida, March 18, 2015. Conference Paper, Presented, 03/18/2015.
  • Novel Methods for Titanium Powder Synthesis. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 03/18/2015.
  • Corrosion Inhibition Modeling for Mixed Surfactant Systems, NACE Annual Meeting, Dallas, Texas, March 16, 2015. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 03/16/2015.
  • Evaluating the Effects of Flow Rate and Concentration Changes on Copper Ore Heap Leaching, Invited speaker, SME Annual Meeting, February, 16, 2015. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 02/16/2015.
  • Evaluating the Effects of Flow Rate and Concentration Changes on Copper Ore Heap Leaching. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 02/16/2015.
  • Producing smooth cathodes, invited presentation, AngloAmerican Platinum, Rustenburg, South Africa, January 26, 2015. Other, Presented, 01/26/2015.
  • Modeling Heap Leaching PLS from Ore Characteristics and Leaching Parameters, Plenary Speaker, International Conference on the "Processing of Lean Grade and Urban Ores, Jamshedpur, India, January 20, 2015. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 01/20/2015.
  • Modeling and Validating Electrodeposition for Commercial Applications, Invited talk, National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur, India, January 19, 2015. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 01/19/2015.
  • Transforming Rocks into Metals: Applying Inorganic Chemistry and Modeling to Predict Industrial Performance, Chemistry Department Guest Lecture, University of Utah, October 7, 2014. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 10/07/2014.
  • Incorporating Mineral Associations, Comminution, Agglomeration, and Loading in Heap Leach Modeling, International Minerals Engineering Congress, San Luis Potosi, Mexico, Plenary Speaker, September 23, 2014. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 09/23/2014.
  • Modeling hydrometallurgical extraction of metals from heterogeneous materials, Shechtman International Symposium, (plenary presentation) June 30, 2014. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 06/30/2014.
  • “Incorporating Mineral Associations, Comminution, Agglomeration, and Loading in Heap Leach Modeling,” Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Hydrometallurgy 2014, Victoria, Canada, June 25, 2014. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 06/25/2014.
  • “Hydrometallurgy Teaching Tools to Help Prepare Students for Employment,” Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Hydrometallurgy 2014, Victoria, Canada, June 25, 2014. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 06/25/2014.
  • “Modeling and Measuring Electrodeposition Parameters Near Electrode Surfaces to Facilitate Cell Performance Optimization,” Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Hydrometallurgy 2014, Victoria, Canada, June 24, 2014. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 06/24/2014.
  • “Sensitization modeling of 5xxx alloys”, NACE Annual Meeting, San Antonio, March 10, 2014. Conference Paper, Presented, 03/10/2014.
  • “Long-term corrosion sensitization modeling and validation for 5xxx alloys,” Materials Science and Engineering/Metallurgical Engineering Seminar, January 29, 2014. Other, Presented, 01/29/2014.
  • “Evaluation of Crushed Ore Agglomeration for Copper Ores,” Copper 2013, Santiago Chile, Dec. 4, 2013. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 12/2013.
  • “Copper Extraction and Recovery from Chalcopyrite in Chloride Media,” Copper 2013, Santiago, Chile, Dec. 4, 2013. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 12/2013.
  • “Copper Extraction and Recovery from Chalcopyrite in Chloride Media,” Copper 2013, Santiago, Chile, Dec. 4, 2013. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 12/2013.
  • “Production of High Quality Metals from Minerals Through Controlled and Sustainable Electrochemistry”, keynote speaker, ISE Annual Meeting, Queretaro, Mexico, September 12, 2013. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 09/2013.
  • “Electrometallurgy Fundamentals”, Tres Marias, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Other, Presented, 07/03/2013.
  • “Long-term, low temperature sensitization modeling of 5xxx alloys,” NACE Annual Meeting, Orlando, March 18, 2013. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 03/2013.
  • Effects of Additives and Mass Transport on Copper Electrodeposit Roughness in Chloride Media", Murdoch University, Perth, Australia. Other, Presented, 12/12/2012.
  • “Improved Modeling of Metal Extraction and Electrowinning,” Invited Speaker, 1st International Metallurgical Meeting, Lima, Peru, October 26-27, 2012. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 10/27/2012.
  • “Hydrometallurgy principles,” BHP-Billiton, Escondida, Chile. Other, Presented, 10/10/2012.
  • “Copper Electrorefining Impurity Evaluation”, TMS T. T. Chen Symposium, Orlando, March 12, 2012. Conference Paper, Presented, 03/12/2012.
  • “Electrometallurgy – Now and in the Future,” TMS Electrometallurgy 2012 Symposium, Orlando, March 12, 2012. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 03/12/2012.
  • “Liquid Retention Capacity Measurements and Their Relationship with Agglomeration Moisture”, SME Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, February 21, 2012. Conference Paper, Presented, 02/21/2012.
  • Evaluation of Mass Transport Effects on the Nucleation and Growth of Electrodeposits,” Keynote paper, Fray International Symposium, 2011. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 11/2011.
  • Long-term Corrosion Damage Prediction Modeling of AA5083 Alloys Based on Experiment, Theory, and Molecular Dynamics Simulations,” DoD Corrosion Conference, July 31-August 5, 2011,LaQuinta Resort and Club in LaQuinta, California. Conference Paper, Presented, 08/2011.
  • Gold adsorption, elution, and electrowinning, Goldfields/Univ. of Mines and Technology, Tarkwa, Ghana. Other, Presented, 07/27/2011.
  • Measuring and modeling copper electrowinning current efficiency in chloride media, June 9, 2010, Hamburg, Copper 2010. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 06/2010.
  • Predicting the effects of locked, partially locked, and liberated valuable mineral grains in copper mineral heap leaching, June 9, 2010, Hamburg, Copper 2010. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 06/2010.
  • Predicting Leaching Solution pH and Acid Consumption in Copper Heap Leaching, June 8, 2010, Hamburg, Copper 2010. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 06/2010.
  • Leaching Fundamentals, Votorantim, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Other, Presented, 05/11/2010.

Languages

  • Portuguese, fluent.

Geographical Regions of Interest

  • Australia
    I am collaborating with a team from Murdoch University in Perth, Australia. I visited the team in Perth in 2014. I have funding from AMIRA International, Ltd., which is based in Australia.
  • Brazil
    I have had some interactions with Brazilian researchers, I speak Portuguese, and I have been to Brazil three times.
  • Canada
    I have multiple collaborations with Canadian researchers, and I have visited Canada multiple times in the last 5 years, including twice in 2016.
  • China
    I have been working with several Chinese scholars and researchers since 2010. I visited these scholars at Northeastern University in Shenyang, and at Shanghai University in Shanghai in August of 2016.
  • Mexico
    I have collaborated with research groups in Mexico and have attended conferences there in 2011, 2013, and 2014.
  • South Africa
    I am performing research on a project that is partially funded by Anglo-American, which has operations in South Africa, which I visited in 2015. I also have collaborations with a research group based in Cape Town, South Africa.
  • Thailand
    I have been collaborating with a research team at Kasetsart University in Bangkok, Thailand. I visited the team in Bangkok in 2016.

Publications

  • Prashant K. Sarswat and Michael L. Free, “Frequency and atomic mass based selective electrochemical recovery of rare earth metals and isotopes” Electrochimica Acta, 219, 435-446, 2016. Published, 11/2016.
  • Weizhi Zeng, Michael L. Free, and Shijie Wang, “A Comparative Study of Electrolyte Flow and Slime Particle Transport in a Newly Designed Copper Electrolytic Cell and a Lab-scale Conventional Electrolytic Cell, JOM, doi:10.1007/s11837-016-2076-x, 2016. Published, 10/2016.
  • Weizhi Zeng, Shijie Wang, Michael L. Free, Experimental Studies of the Effects of Anode Composition and Process Parameters on Anode Slime Adhesion and Cathode Copper Purity by Performing Copper Electrorefining in a Pilot-Scale Cell,” Metallurgical Transactions B, 47(5), 3178-3179, 2016. Published, 10/2016.
  • Prashant K Sarswat , Sayan Sarkar, Jae-Hun Cho, Dhiman, Bhattacharyya, and Michael L Free, “Structural and Electrical Irregularities Caused by Selected Dopants in Black-Phosphorus”, ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology 5 Q3026-Q3032, 2016. Published, 10/2016.
  • Jian Liu, Liuchun Zheng, Yaowei Li, Michael Free, and Mingzhu Yang “Adsorptive Recovery of Palladium (II) from Aqueous Solution onto Cross-linked Chitosan/montmorillonite Membrane,” Royal Society of Chemistry Advances, 6, 51757-51767 2016. Published, 08/2016.
  • Michael L. Free, “Enhanced Nanoparticle Removal Using Surfactants,” MRS Advances, 1 (31), 2213-2224, 2016. Published, 08/2016.
  • Ying Zhang ; Zhigang Zak Fang ; Yang Xia ; Zhe Huang ; Hyrum Lefler ; Tuoyang Zhang ; Pei Sun ; Michael L. Free ; Jun Guo A novel chemical pathway for energy efficient production of Ti metal from upgraded titanium slag, Chemical Engineering Journal, 286, 517-527, 2016. Published, 08/2016.
  • Weizhi Zeng, Shijie Wang, and Michael L. Free, “Simulation Study of Electrolyte Flow and Slime Particle Transport in a Newly Designed Copper Electrorefining Cell” ECS Transactions 72(22), 23-42, 2016. Published, 07/2016.
  • Sayan Sarkar, Prashant K. Sarswat, and Michael L. Free “Modification of Electronic and Vibrational Properties of Doped Black-P Films,” MRS Advances, 1(32), 2285-2290, 2016. Published, 06/2016.
  • Yakun Zhu, Michael L Free, and Jae-Hun Cho, Integrated evaluation of Mixed Surfactants’ Distribution in Water-Oil-Steel Pipe Environments and Associated corrosion Inhibition Efficiency, submitted for publication, Corrosion Science, 110, 213-227, 2016. Published, 06/2016.
  • Weizhi Zeng, Michael L. Free, Shijie Wang, “Experimental and Simulation Studies of Electrolyte Flow and Slime Particle Transport in a Pilot Scale Copper Electrorefining Cell, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 163 (5) E111-E122, 2016. Published, 06/2016.
  • Prashant Sarswat, Sayan Sarkar; Dhiman Bhattacharyya, Ph.D.; Jaehun Cho; Michael L Free, Dopants Induced Structural and Optical Anomalies of Anisotropic Edges of Black Phosphorous Thin Films and Crystals, Ceramics International, 42(11), 13113–13127 2016. Published, 05/2016.
  • Amarchand Sathyapalan, Michael L. Free, Zak Fang, “Exploring Alternative Methods for Titanium Production”, Ti-2015 Conference Proceedings, 2015. Published, 05/2016.
  • Yakun Zhu, Michael L. Free, and Gaosong Yi, The effects of surfactant concentration, adsorption, aggregation, and solution conditions on steel corrosion inhibition and associated modeling in aqueous media, Corrosion Science, 102, 233-250, 2016. Published, 04/2016.
  • Prashant K. Sarswat, Dhiman Bhattacharyya, Michael L. Free, and Manoranjan Misra, Augmented Z scheme blueprint for efficient solar water splitting system using quaternary chalcogenide absorber material, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 18, 3788-3803, 2016. Published, 04/2016.
  • Yakun Zhu and Michael L. Free, Experimental investigation and modeling of the performance of pure and mixed surfactant inhibitors: micellization and corrosion inhibition, Colloids and Surfaces A Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 489,407, 2016. Published, 03/2016.
  • Jae-Hun Cho, Syamantak Roy, Michael L. Free, Zak Fang, Purification of Reduced Titania Slag by Iron Removal Using Mild Acids, Hydrometallurgy, 161, 7-13, 2016. Published, 03/2016.
  • Jaehun Cho, Syamantak Roy, Amarchand Sathyapalan, Michael L. Free, Zhigang Zak Fang Investigation of Iron Removal from Reduced Upgraded Titania Slag Using Mild Acids, Rare Metal Technology, 2016, TMS, Warrendale, PA, pp. 143-150, 2016. Published, 03/2016.
  • Syamantak Roy, Jaehun Cho, Amarchand Sathyapalan, Michael Free, Zhigang Fang Production of Titanium Hydride Powder by leaching of Aluminum, Iron and Silicon impurities from reduced upgraded titania slag for low cost titanium production, Chapter 85 in Light Metals Supplemental Proceedings 2016, TMS, Warrendale, PA, pp. 711-719, 2016. Published, 03/2016.
  • Michael L. Free “The Use of Surfactants to Enhance Particle Removal from Surfaces,” Chapter 13 in Volume 1: Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, 2nd edition, ed. Rajiv Kohli and K. L. Mittal, Elsevier, pp. 595-626, 2016. Published, 02/2016.
  • Weizhi Zeng, Michael L. Free, Shijie Wang, Studies of Anode Slime Sintering/Coalescence and Its Effects on Anode Slime Adhesion and Cathode Purity in Copper Electrorefining, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 163(2):E14-E31, 2016. Published, 02/2016.
  • Gaosong Yi, Yakun ZhuYakun Zhu, Erik Sundberg, and Michael Free, Sensitization prediction and validation for 5xxx Alloys Exposed to long-term cyclical and contant heating at low temperatures, Corrosion, 72(2), 177-186, 2016. Published, 02/2016.
  • Gaosong Yi and Michael L. Free, “Long-Term Al 5xxx Alloy Sensitization Modeling and Experimental Validation,” DoD Corrosion Conference, November 15-19, Pittsburgh, PA, 2015. In press, 11/2015.
  • Yakun Zhu and Michael L. Free, “Mixed-Surfactant Aggregation and Adsorption Effects on Steel Corrosion Inhibition in Aqueous Media with Salt” DoD Corrosion Conference, November 15-19, Pittsburgh, PA, 2015. In press, 11/2015.
  • Weizhi Zeng, Michael Free, Joshua Werner, and Shijie Wang, Simulation and Validation Studies of Impurity Particle Behavior in Copper Electrorefining, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 162 (14) E338-E352, 2015. Published, 11/2015.
  • Yakun Zhu and Michael L. Free, “Mixed Surfactant Aggregation, Adsorption, and Associated Steel Corrosion Inhibition in Salt Solution,” International Journal of Corrosion and Scale Inhibition, 4(4), 311, 2015. Published, 09/2015.
  • Michael L. Free, Modelling Heap Leaching PLS from Valuable Mineral Associations and Leaching Parameters, Proceedings of Heap Leach Solutions, 2015, Reno, Nevada, 2015. Published, 09/2015.
  • Prashant Sarswat and Michael L. Free “Quantum dots and light emitting diodes from food, beverage, and combustion wastes”, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys, 17, 27642—27652, 2015. Published, 08/2015.
  • Zhiqiang Ning, Yakun Zhu, and Michael L. Free, “Experimental and Modeling Investigation of Pure and Mixed Surfactant Aggregation and Associated Steel Corrosion Inhibition in Aqueous Media,” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 10 10462-10477, 2015. Published, 08/2015.
  • Dhiman Bhattacharyya, Prashant Sarswat, M. Islam, G. Kumar, Manoranjan Misra, Michael L. Free, Geometrical modifications and tuning of optical and surface plasmon resonance behavior of Au and Ag coated TiO2 nanotubular array, Royal Society of Chemistry Advances, 5, 70361–70370, 2015. Published, 08/2015.
  • Yakun Zhu and Michael L. Free, “Experimental Investigation and Modeling of the Performance of Pure and Mixed Surfactant Inhibitors: Partitioning andDistribution inWater-Oil Environments, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 162 (14) C702-C717, 2015. Published, 07/2015.
  • York Smith, Prashant Sarswat, Manoranjan Misra, Michael L. Free, “Duality in resistance switching behavior of TiO2-Cu2ZnSnS4 device”. ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, 4 (8) Q83-Q91, 2015. Published, 06/2015.
  • Yakun Zhu, Michael L. Free, Gaosong Yi, Experimental investigation and modeling of the performance of pure and mixed surfactant inhibitors: aggregation, adsorption, and corrosion inhibition on steel pipe in aqueous phase, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 162 (10), C582-C591, 2015. Published, 05/2015.
  • Prashant Sarswat, Michael Free, "Long-Term Stability of Mixed Perovskites" 2015 MRS Spring Meeting, MRSS15-2137945, 2015. Published, 05/2015.
  • Yakun Zhu and Michael L. Free, Electrochemical measurement, modeling, and prediction of steel corrosion inhibition using surfactants in salt solution, ECS Transactions, 66 (17), 53-57, 2015. Published, 05/2015.
  • Yakun Zhu, Michael L. Free, Evaluation of Ion Effects on Surfactant Aggregation from Improved Molecular Thermodynamic Modeling, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 54, 9052, 2015. Published, 04/2015.
  • G Yi, DA Cullen, AT Derrick, Y Zhu, ML FreeEffects of Different Temper and Aging Temperature on the Precipitation Behavior of Al 5xxx Alloy, Light Metals 2015, 359-365, 2015. Published, 03/2015.
  • Gaosong Yi, Alexander T. Derrick, Yakun Zhu, and Michael L. Free, “A Collector Plate Mechanism Based Classical Intergranular Precipitation Theory for Al 5xxx Alloy Sensitized at Low Temperature” Metallurgical Transactions A, 46(11), 5393-5406, 2015. Published, 03/2015.
  • Prashant K. Sarswat, Michael L. Free, The effects of dopant impurities on Cu2ZnSnS4 system Raman properties, Journal of Materials Science, 50, 1613, 2015. Published, 03/2015.
  • Yakun Zhu and Michael L. Free, Electrochemical measurement, modeling, and prediction of corrosion inhibition efficiency of ternary mixtures of homologous surfactants in salt solution Corrosion Science, 98, 417-429, 2015. Published, 03/2015.
  • Weizhi Zeng, Joshua Werner, and Michael L. Free, “Experimental Studies on Impurity Particle Behavior in Electrolyte and the Associated Distribution on the Cathode in the Process of Copper Electrorefining,” Hydrometallurgy, 156, 232, 2015. Published, 02/2015.
  • Prashant K Sarswat, Amarchand Sathyapalan, Michael L. Free, Current trends in molecular functional monolayers, invited chapter in Anti-Abrasive Nanocoatings: Current and Future Applications, ed. Mahmood Aliofkhazraei, Woodhead Publishing Limited, 331-348, 2015. Published, 02/2015.
  • Nikhil Dhawan, M. Sadegh Safarzadeh, Jan D. Miller, Michael S. Moats, Michael L. Free “Understanding the agglomeration behavior of selected copper ores using statistical design of experiments,” Mineral Processing & Extractive Metall. Rev., 36: 13–25, 2015. Published, 01/2015.
  • Gaosong Yi, Michael Free, Yakun Zhu, and Alexander Derrick, "Capillarity effect controlled precipitate growth at the grain boundary of long-term aging Al 5083 alloy" Metallurgical Transactions A, 45(11), 4851-4862, 2014. Published, 09/2014.
  • Prashant K Sarswat, Amarchand Sathyapalan, Michael L. Free, Current trends in molecular functional monolayers, invited chapter in Anti-Abrasive Nanocoatings: Current and Future Applications, ed. Mahmood Aliofkhazraei, Woodhead Publishing Limited, 331-348, 2014. Published, 09/2014.
  • Amarchand Sathyapalan, Prashant Sarswat, Yakun Zhu, Michael L. Free, "Advanced portable selective non-invasive ketone body detection sensors based on new ionophores" Materials Research Express, 1, 045409, 1-16, 2014. Published, 08/2014.
  • Prashant Sarswat, Michael L. Free and Gagan Kumar, “An investigation of nanocrystalline and electrochemically grown Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film using redox couples of different band offset," accepted for publication in Journal of Spectroscopy, Vol. 2013, Article ID 321483, 1-9, 2013. Published, 08/2014.
  • Prashant Sarswat and Michael L. Free, The effects of dopant impurities on Cu2ZnSnS4 system Raman properties, Journal of Materials Science, Article ID 154694, 1-7, 2014. Published, 07/2014.
  • Michael L. Free, Hydrometallurgy Teaching Tools to Help Prepare Students for Employment, Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Hydrometallurgy 2014, Vol. 1, ed. E. Asselin, D. Dixon, F. Doyle, D. Dreisinger, M. Jeffrey, M. Moats, MetSoc, Westmount, Canada, 471-479, 2014. Published, 06/2014.
  • M. L. Free, Modeling hydrometallurgical extraction of metals from heterogeneous materials, Shechtman International Symposium Conference Proceedings, 2014. Published, 06/2014.
  • Abhijeet Shukla and Michael L. Free, Modeling and Measuring Electrodeposition Parameters Near Electrode Surfaces to Facilitate Cell Performance Optimization, Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Hydrometallurgy 2014, Vol. 2, ed. E. Asselin, D. Dixon, F. Doyle, D. Dreisinger, M. Jeffrey, M. Moats, MetSoc, Westmount, Canada, 67-78, 2014. Published, 06/2014.
  • Michael L. Free, Incorporating Mineral Associations, Comminution, Agglomeration, and Loading in Heap Leach Modeling, Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Hydrometallurgy 2014, Vol. 1, ed. E. Asselin, D. Dixon, F. Doyle, D. Dreisinger, M. Jeffrey, M. Moats, MetSoc, Westmount, Canada, 431-442, 2014. Published, 06/2014.
  • Amarchand Sathyapalan, Michael L. Free, Zak Fang, “Low cost titanium production by green chemical synthesis routes,” Powdermetallurgy Conference Proceedings, Orlando, May 2014. Published, 05/2014.
  • M. R. Robison, M. L. Free, Modeling and Experimental Validation of Electroplating Deposit Distributions from Copper Sulfate Solutions, ECS Transactions, 61(21), 27-36, 2014. Published, 05/2014.
  • Prashant K. Sarswat, Michael L. Free, Quantum Dot Based Sensing Platform for Selective Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds and Biomarkers, ECS Transactions, 61 (19) 11-16, 2014. Published, 05/2014.
  • Nikhil Dhawan, M. Sadegh Safarzadeh, Jan D. Miller, Michael S. Moats, Michael L. Free “Understanding the agglomeration behavior of nickel laterite and gold ore using statistical design of experiments,” Minerals & Metallurgical Processing, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 21-33, 2014. Published, 05/2014.
  • Gaosong Yi, Yakun Zhu, David A. Cullen, Alexander T. Derrick, Michael L. Free, Precipitates in Long-Term-Aged Al 5083 Alloy, Light Metals Proceedings, TMS Annual Meeting, 2014. Published, 03/2014.
  • Aphichart Rodchanarowan, Prashant K Sarswat, Ravindra Bhide, and Michael L. Free, “Production of copper from minerals through controlled and sustainable electrochemistry,” Electrochimica Acta, 140, 447-456, 2014. Published, 03/2014.
  • Michael L. Free, Biohydrometallurgy, Chapter 2.8 in Treatise of Process Metallurgy, Vol. 3, ed. Seshadri Seetharaman, Elsevier, Oxford, UK, 983-994, 2014. Published, 01/2014.
  • Prashant K. Sarswat, Michael L. Free, “Utility of by-product quantum dots obtained during synthesis of Cu2ZnSnS4 colloidal ink, Ceramics International, 40(1) Part A, January, pp. 859-869, 2014. Published, 01/2014.
  • Michael L. Free and Michael S. Moats, Hydrometallurgy, Chapter 2.7 in Treatise of Process Metallurgy, Vol. 3, ed. Seshadri Seetharaman, Elsevier, Oxford, UK, 949-982, 2014. Published, 01/2014.
  • Nikhil Dhawan, Michael S. Moats, Michael L. Free, Raj K. Rajamani, Jan D. Miller, and Chen L. Lin, Evaluation of Crushed Ore Agglomeration for Copper Ores, Copper 2013, Santiago Chile, Dec. 1-4, 2013, Proceedings, IIMCH, Santiago, Vol. 4, 401-415, 2013. Published, 12/2013.
  • Baoping Zhang and Michael L. Free, Copper Extraction and Recovery from Chalcopyrite in Chloride Media, Copper 2013, Santiago Chile, Dec. 1-4, 2013, Proceedings, IIMCH, Santiago, Vol. 4, 469-480, 2013. Published, 12/2013.
  • Abhijeet Shukla and Michael L. Free, Modeling and Measuring Electrodeposition Parameters Near Electrode Surfaces to Facilitate Cell Performance Optimization, submitted for publication in Hydrometallurgy, 2014. Submitted, 12/01/2013.
  • Michael L. Free, Hydrometallurgy Teaching Tools to Help Prepare Students for Employment, submitted for publication in Hydrometallurgy, 2014. Submitted, 12/01/2013.
  • Michael L. Free, Incorporating Mineral Associations, Comminution, Agglomeration, and Loading in Heap Leach Modeling, submitted for publication in Hydrometallurgy, 2014. Submitted, 12/01/2013.
  • Michael L. Free, Ravindra Bhide, and Aphichard Rodchanarowan, Evaluation of Mass Transport Effects on the Nucleation and Growth of Electrodeposits, Journal of Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 122(4), 223-228, 2013. Published, 12/2013.
  • Gaosong Yi, Yakun Zhu, David A. Cullen, Alexander T. Derrick, Michael L. Free, Precipitates in Long-Term-Aged Al 5083 Alloy, Light Metals Proceedings, TMS Annual Meeting, 2014. Accepted, 11/2013.
  • Michael L. Free, Hydrometallurgy Fundamentals and Applications, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2013. Published, 10/2013.
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  • Prashant Sarswat and Michael L. Free, "Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Response from Copper Antimony Zinc Sulfide Thin Films on Transparent Conducting Electrode," International Journal of Photoenergy, Vol. 2013, Article ID 154694, 1-7, 2013. Published, 08/2013.
  • P. K. Sarswat, M. L. Free, “Contact Engineering for Cu2ZnSnS4 – Alternative back contact: A Preliminary Evaluation,” Journal of Crystal Growth, 372, 87, 2013. Published, 08/2013.
  • P K Sarswat, M. L. Free, Bifacial photodetector using chalcogenide absorber,” IEEE proceedings of ICEE 2012 pp. 1-3, 15-17 Dec 2012 doi: 10.1109/ICEmElec.2012.6636255.. Published, 03/2013.
  • T. Vethosodsakda, M. L. Free, A. Janwong and M. S. Moats, “Evaluation of liquid retention capacity measurements as a tool for estimating optimal ore agglomeration moisture content,” accepted for publication in the International Journal of Mineral Processing, 119, 58-64, 2013. Published, 02/2013.
  • P. K. Sarswat, A. Sathyapalan, Y. Zhu, and M. L. Free, “A New TPA-Thiophene Based Molecule with imine group: An Evaluation of Optical Properties”, Journal of Theoretical and Applied Physics, DOI:10.1186/2251-7235-7-4, 2013. Published, 01/2013.
  • P. K. Sarswat, M. L. Free, “An Assessment of Contact Engineering for the Cu2ZnSnS4-alternative back contact" has been accepted for publication in Materials Focus, 2013. Accepted, 12/2012.
  • M. L. Free and S. Wang, “Brief Overview of Innovations in Hydrometallurgical and Electrometallurgical Processing Associated with 2012 Symposia”, JOM, 64(11), 1277-1278, 2012. Published, 11/2012.
  • P. K. Sarswat and M. L. Free, “An Evaluation of Depletion Layer Photoactivity in Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Film”, Thin Solid Films, 520, 4422, 2012. Published, 10/2012.
  • Michael L. Free, Improved Modeling of Metal Extraction and Electrowinning, 1st International Metallurgical Meeting, Conference Proceedings, Metal Extraction, Volume 2, pp. 1-13, 2012. Published, 10/2012.
  • P. K. Sarswat, M. Jagannathan, R. Menon, M. L. Free, “Evaluation of power conversion efficiency of GaAs and monocrystalline Si solar cells under spectral splitting conditions”, (Submitted to Applied Physics B). Submitted, 10/2012.
  • Prashant K Sarswat and Michael L Free, “An Evaluation of Energy Band Gap versus Temperature in Cu2ZnSnS4 Absorber Material,” Physica B, 407, 108, 2012. Published, 09/2012.
  • A. Rodchanarowan, M. L. Free, “The Influence of Organic Additives on Surface Microroughness of Copper Deposits from Cuprous Solution under Potentiostatic Conditions" Materials Transactions, 53(9), 1695-1698, 2012. Published, 09/2012.
  • P K Sarswat and M L Free, “A Comparative Study of Co-electrodeposited CZTS Absorber Material on FTO and Molybdenum Substrate”, Journal of Electronic Materials, 41, 2210, 2012. Published, 08/2012.
  • Prashant K Sarswat, M. L. Free, A. Tiwari, “Temperature dependent Raman Study of CZTS (Cu2ZnSnS4) thin film” Physica Status Solidi B 248, 2170, 2012. Published, 05/2012.
  • Prashant K. Sarswat, M. L. Free, A. Tiwari, M. Snure, “CZTS Thin Films on Transparent Conducting Electrodes by Electrochemical Technique" Thin Solid Films, 520, 1694, 2012. Published, 05/2012.
  • Electrometallurgy – Now and in the Future, Proceedings of Electrometallurgy 2012 Symposium, Ed. M. L. Free, M. S. Moats, G. Houlachi, E. Asselin, A. Allanore, J. Yurko, S. Wang, TMS, Warrendale, 2012. Published, 03/2012.
  • Proceedings of the T. T. Chen Symposium, Ed. S. Wang, J. E. Dutrizac, M. L. Free, J. Y. Hwang, D. Kim, TMS, Warrendale, 2012. Published, 03/2012.
  • Yakun Zhu, David Cullen, Soumya Kar, Michael L. Free, Larry Allard, Experimental Validation of Long-term Thermal Exposure Sensitization of AA5xxx Alloys, NACE International Corrosion Conference Proceedings, 2012. Published, 03/2012.
  • Yakun Zhu, David Cullen, Soumya Kar, Michael L. Free, Larry Allard, Evaluation of Al3Mg2 precipitates and Mn-rich phase in aluminum-magnesium alloy based on scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging, accepted for publication in Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 43(13), 4933-4393, 2012. Published, 03/2012.
  • Electrometallurgy – Now and in the Future, Electrometallurgy 2012, TMS. Published, 02/2012.
  • Copper Electrorefining Impurity Evaluation, T. T. Chen Symposium, TMS, 2012. Published, 02/2012.
  • A. Opara, D. J. Adams, M. L. Free, J. McLennan, J. Hamilton, Microbial Production of Methane and Carbon Dioxide from Lignite, Bituminous Coal, and Bituminous Coal Waste Materials. International Journal of Coal Geology, (96-97), 1-8, 2012. Published, 02/2012.
  • Michael L. Free, Ravindra Bhide, and Aphichard Rodchanarowan, Evaluation of Mass Transport Effects on the Nucleation and Growth of Electrodeposits, Fray International Symposium, Invited keynote paper, Vol. 6, 453-466, 2012. Accepted, 12/01/2011.
  • P K Sarswat and Michael L Free, “A Demonstration of Sol - gel synthesized Bifacial CZTS-Photoelectrochemical cell” Phys. Status Solidi A, 208, 2861, 2011. Published, 11/2011.
  • Michael L. Free, Minor Elements Recovery and Impurity Control in Industrial Metal Processing, JOM, 63(8), 89, 2011. Published, 07/30/2011.
  • Yakun Zhu, Soumya Kar, Michael L. Free, Long-term Corrosion Damage Prediction Modeling of AA5083 Alloys Based on Experiment, Theory, and Molecular Dynamics Simulations, DoD Corrosion Conference Proceedings, July 31-August 5, 2011, LaQuinta Resort and Club in LaQuinta, California. Accepted, 07/2011.