In general, I value action, thought, and reflection. However, ultimately, teaching approaches need to be tailored to both the audience and the content. As most of the courses I teach are upper division or graduate level courses, it is often best to allow students some flexibility to tailor the course content to their goals and needs. Good teaching is messy, and I value teachable moments over rigid structure and inflexible course designs. Books excel at delivering content in a linear and organized manner. I often prefer to use class time to wrestle with concepts and issues unclear from course reading and rely on student input to guide the direction of the class.