In general, I value action, thought, and reflection. However, ultimately, teaching approaches need to be tailored to both the audience and the content. As most of the courses I teach are upper-division or graduate-level, it is often best to allow students some flexibility to tailor the course content to their goals and needs. Good teaching is messy, and I value teachable moments over rigid structure and inflexible course designs. Books excel at delivering content in a linear and organized manner. I often prefer to use class time to wrestle with concepts and issues unclear from course readings and rely on student input to guide the direction of the class.