- B.A., Economics, University of Michigan
- M.A., Linguistics, University of Michigan
- Ph.D, Linguistics, University of Michigan. Project: The Ezafe Construction in Modern Standard Persian
My primary, long-term academic focus has been in language testing research and the justification, as well as the design, development, and use of language assessments. More recently, I have focused on designing software to facilitate both the development of language tests and teaching the process to language teachers and language testing specialists. I also work in the areas of second language teaching and acquisitionn in instructional settings and real-world environments.