• Professor, College Of Law


  • Amicus Curiae Brief in The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc. v. Lynn Goldsmith (on behalf of Appellant in photography infringement case), United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (November 2019). Published, 11/2019.
  • Amicus Curiae Brief in Drew Adams v. School Bd. of St. Johns Cty., Florida (transgender student bathroom case), United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit (February 2019). Published, 02/2019.
  • Amicus Curiae Brief in Jacobus Rentmeester v. Nike, Inc. (copyright and photographic originality case), United States Supreme Court (January 2019). Published, 01/2019.
  • Stalled! Project Website Essay – “Sex-Separated Public Restrooms and their Regulation throughout American History,” June, 2018 (https://www.stalled.online/standards). Published, 06/2018.
  • Amicus Brief in Gloucester Cty School Bd. v. G.G. (transgender student bathroom case), United States Supreme Court (filed in March 2017). Published, 03/2017.
  • Public Restrooms and the Distorting of Transgender Identity, 95 N.C. L. REV. 1205 (2017). Published, 05/2017.
  • How Photographs Infringe, 95 N.C. L. Rev. 1205 (2017). Published, 01/2017.
  • How did public bathrooms get to be separated by sex in the first place?, The Conversation – Online Cultural Journal (May 26, 2016). Published, 05/26/2016.
  • The Enigma of Photography, Depiction, and Copyright Originality, 25 Fordham Intellectual Property, Media, and Entertainment Law Journal 869 (2015). Published, 01/2015.
  • Photographic Reproductions, Copyright and the Slavish Copy, 35 Columbia Journal of Law & the Arts 445 (2012). Published, 06/2012.
  • Sex-Separation: The Cure-All for Victorian Social Anxiety, in Toilet: The Public Restroom and the Politics of Sharing, ed. Harvey Molotch and Laura Noren (NYU Press, 2010). Published, 01/2010.
  • Transsexuals in Public Restrooms: Law, Cultural Geography and Etsitty v. Utah Transit Authority, 18 Temp. Pol. & Civ. Rts. L. Rev. 673 (2009). Published, 01/2009.
  • Sex-Separation in Public Restrooms: Law Architecture, and Gender, 14 Mich. J. Gender & L. 1 (2007). Published, 01/2007.
  • Transsexuals, Intersexuals, and Same-Sex Marriage, 18 BYU J. Pub. L. 371 (2004). Published, 01/2004.
  • Competing Approaches to Same-Sex Versus Opposite-Sex Unmarried Couples in Domestic Partnership Law and Ordinances, 2001 BYU L. Rev. 1023. Published, 01/2001.
  • Piercing the Facade of Utah's 'Improved' Elective Share Statute, 1999 Utah L. Rev. 677. Published, 01/1999.
  • Transsexuals and Critical Gender Theory: the Possibility of a Restroom Labeled 'Other,' 48 Hastings L.J. 1223 (1997). Published, 01/1997.
  • Legislative Violence Against Lesbians and Gay Men, 1994 Utah L. Rev. 209. Published, 01/1994.
  • Geography and Due Process: The Social Meaning of Adjudicative Jurisdiction, 22 Rutgers L. Rev. 627 (1991). Published, 01/1991.
  • A Neo-Federalist Tale of Personal Jurisdiction, 63 S. Cal. L. Rev. 257 (1990). Published, 01/1990.
  • Toward a Jurisprudence of Choice of Law: The Priority of Fairness over Comity, 62 N.Y.U. Law Rev. 651 (1987). Published, 01/1987.

Research Keywords

  • Sexuality and Queer Studies
  • Photography
  • Copyright, Patent and Trademark Law


  • The Culture War Over Public Restrooms, U to You Park City Lecture Series, Park City, Utah . Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 06/12/2019.
  • Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London, Stalled! London Conference –Beyond Gender Segregated Public Toilets and Towards Equitable Design, Paper on “Amending American Building Codes and Inclusive Restrooms”. Presentation, Presented, 03/09/2019.
  • University of Chicago Law School, May 16, 2018 – Paper on “Tacit Architectural Codes: Early Nineteenth Century Origins of Sex-Designated Public Restrooms in America”. Conference Paper, Refereed, Presented, 05/16/2018.
  • The Restroom, Yale School of Architecture, Symposium on “Non-Compliant Bodies,” New Haven. Presentation, Presented, 04/06/2018.
  • The Philosophy, Politics, and Economics Society Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Paper on “Bathroom Wars”. Presentation, Presented, 03/15/2018.
  • Bathroom Wars, The Philosophy, Politics, and Economics Society Annual Meeting, New Orleans. Presentation, Presented, 03/2018.
  • Transgender Rights and the "Bathroom Problem," National Association of Appellate Court Attorneys, Denver, Colorado. Presentation, Accepted, 07/2017.
  • Transgender Issues & the Law, Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals Judges Conference, Deer Valley, Utah. Presentation, Accepted, 05/2017.
  • Second Copyright Roundtable, University of Pennsylvania Law School, Philadelphia, PA. Invited Talk/Keynote, Accepted, 03/23/2017.
  • How Photographs Infringe, Second Copyright Roundtable, University of Pennsylvania Law School. Invited Talk/Keynote, Presented, 03/23/2017.
  • Extrinsic Evidence and Conditions in Contracts After Mind & Motion v. Celtic Bank, Downtown CLE, (with Troy Booher), Salt Lake City, UT. Presentation, Presented, 04/19/2016.
  • Background of the Kristen Ries & Maggie Snyder History of HIV/AIDS Archive, Marriott Library, Salt Lake City, UT. Presentation, Presented, 09/30/2015.
  • Gender Journeys: In-Between Sex/Gender and the Law, University of Utah Symposium, Changing Sex, Changing Sexuality – Reimagining the Mutability of Sex, Gender, and Sexual Orientation in Science and Law. Presentation, Presented, 01/31/2014.
  • Toilets and Transgender Rights, University of Utah, U. of U. Pride Week, Salt Lake City, UT. Presentation, Presented, 10/20/2011.
  • Organizing Committee and Panel Moderator, Tanner Conference on Human Rights, Conflict Resolution, Nonviolence & Peace - Controlling Sexuality Through Violence, Shame and Cultural Oppression - Implications for Human Rights, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (Feb. 2010). Presentation, Presented, 02/2010.
  • Panelist, Transgender Rights and Comments on Film, Trained in the Ways of Men, Main Public Library, Salt Lake City, UT (Nov. 2008). Presentation, Presented, 11/2008.
  • Bodies, Architectural Space, and the Law: The Banishment of Transsexuals from the Workplace in Etsitty v. UTA, Temple University Beasley School of Law Symposium on "Intersections of Transgender Lives and the Law," Philadelphia. Presentation, Presented, 11/2008.
  • Transsexuals and Same-Sex Marriage, BYU Law School, Symposium on Same-Sex Marriage (Aug. 2003). Presentation, Presented, 08/2003.
  • Competing Approaches to Domestic Partnership Law, Symposium on the ALI Principles of the Law of Family Dissolution, BYU Law School (Feb. 2001). Presentation, Presented, 02/2001.
  • Should Gays and Lesbians Be Allowed To Marry and Adopt Children, Debate (with Lynn Wardle, BYU Law School), University of Utah S.J. Quinney College of Law (Apr. 2000). Presentation, Presented, 04/2000.
  • A View from Two: Lesbians and Gay Men in America A Legislative and Political Perspective, University of Utah S.J. Quinney College of Law (Feb. 1998). Presentation, Presented, 02/1998.
  • Why Marriage Matters, Intermountain Conference on Homosexuality: Bringing Families Together, University of Utah (May 1997). Presentation, Presented, 05/1997.
  • Transsexuals and Critical Gender Theory, Intersexions: The Legal and Social Construction of Sexual Orientation Symposium, Hastings College of Law (Mar. 1997). Presentation, Presented, 03/1997.

Media Appearances

“America’s Public Restrooms Are Kind of Great Now,” Farhad Manjoo, New York Times, December 11, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/12/11/opinion/public-restrooms.html
“Mixed Company: Utah’s First All-Gender, Multi-User Public Restroom to Debut in 2020”, ABC4 News, May 1, 2019, https://www.abc4.com/news/local-news/mixed-company-utahsfirst-all-gender-multi-user-public-restroom-to-debut-in-2020/
“Is This the Answer to the Bathroom Problem?” Deseret News, April 30, 2019, https://www.deseretnews.com/article/900068450/is-this-the-answer-to-the-bathroomproblem.html
“How bathroom design can be a bridge to more accessible architecture,” Patrick Sisson, Curbed, July 31, 2018, https://www.curbed.com/2018/7/31/17636872/transgender-bathroomaccessibility-design-stalled
World AIDS Day, December 1, 2017 – KRCL Radio — Presentation on the HIV/AIDS Archive at the Marriott Library that I spearheaded.
“The Problem With Men’s Locker Rooms and Women’s Restroom”, To the Best of Our Knowledge (Wisconsin Public Radio; Public Radio International) (On-air dialogue with Amy Schalet, Professor of Sociology, U. Mass. - Amherst) October 13, 2016 (http://www.ttbook.org/book/problem-mens-locker-rooms-and-womens-restrooms-0)
“There’s Nothing Obvious About Gender Segregated Bathrooms" - The David Pakman Show, Live Interview, August 9, 2016 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WcBNDp2Da7Q)
“Our Bathrooms Weren't Always Separated by Sex” – Stateside, Live Interview, July 12, 2016
“Separate Spheres: How the Ideology is Still Affecting Us Today” – “You Are Not So Smart” David McRaney, Live Interview, June 29, 2016 (https://youarenotsosmart.com/2016/06/29/yanss-079-separate-spheres/)
How did public bathrooms get to be separated by sex in the first place?, THE GUARDIAN, June 11, 2016 (Originally published in THE CONVERSATION – Online Cultural Journal, May 26, 2016) https://theconversation.com/how-did-public-bathrooms-get-to-be-separated-by-sex-inthe-first-place-59575
“Sex-Segregated Bathrooms” – RADIOWEST, KUER, June 2, 2016, http://radiowest.kuer.org/post/sex-segregated-bathrooms
Quoted in “It’s Not Just Transgender People: Public Restrooms Have Bred Fear for Centuries” – Vox, May 27, 2016, http://www.vox.com/2016/5/27/11792550/transgender-bathroom
Quoted in “Public Toilets from NYC to LA Get Gender-Neutral Design Overhaul, Bloomberg News, May 18, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-05-18/public-toiletsfrom-nyc-to-la-get-gender-neutral-design-overhaul
Quoted in “Why Do We Have Men’s and Women’s Bathrooms Anyway?,” TIME MAGAZINE ONLINE, May 16, 2016, http://time.com/4337761/history-sex-segregated-bathrooms/
“The Sexist Origins of Gender-Segregated Bathrooms” — John Hockenberry, The Takeaway - NPR, Live Interview, May 11, 2016, http://www.wnyc.org/radio/#/ondemand/604174
Quoted in “The panic over potty politics didn’t start with the transgender issue,” Time Magazine, May 2, 2016, https://timeline.com/the-history-of-potty-politics-transgender-bathroom-use-isjust-the-latest-version-817587a733a7#.udzmqbxpc